The Hypertable Blog

Hello, Node.js!

04.03.2015  |  Language Support  |  0

We're happy to announce that as of the release, Hypertable now includes a Node.js binding!  Node.js is a platform that allows you to write server-side programs in Javascript, the programming language of the Web.  Javascript is growing in popularity and is officially part of HTML5.  The decision to add a Node.js binding was, in part, motivated by our decision to embark on a rewrite of the Hypertable monitoring system.  We've chosen to use Node.js for the new monitoring system based on how well it satisfies the following requirements:

1. Single Language

Since Javascript is the client-side programming language for HTML, any complex web application will require at least some of it to be written in Javascript.  This means that web applications written in Python or Ruby require programmers to mentally jump back-and-forth between languages.  It's like visiting a country where to get by, you have to speak both French and German!  Node.js eliminates this problem by allowing entire web applications to be written in a single programming language, Javascript.

2. No External Dependencies

Node.js allows add-on packages to be installed locally inside the project, thereby eliminating external package dependencies and avoiding system-wide package version conflicts.  What's more, Hypertable includes the Node.js interpreter in the Hypertable package itself, so there are absolutely no dependencies on the Node.js platform.  By simply installing Hypertable, you have everything you need to start building Node.js applications that interact with Hypertable!

3. Optimum Performance

Node.js is inherently event-driven and facilitates the development of efficient, non-blocking programs.  Node.js is implemented with Google's V8 Javascript engine, which is the same engine that runs in the Chrome browser.  V8 compiles Javascript to machine code and dynamically optimizes it based on heuristics of the code's execution profile.  In a nutshell, it is extremely fast.

For information about how to develop Node.js programs that interact with Hypertable, including comprehensive code examples, see Hypertable Node.js Developer's Guide.  As with all of Hypertable's language bindings, the Developer Guide is auto-generated from the release test code, so it won't ever become out-of-date.  For a detailed description of the Hypertable Javascript classes, see the JSDoc generated Hypertable Javascript Class API.

Posted By:  Doug Judd


Hypertable Powers Book Abacus—a Semantic Web-based Book Recommendation Service

02.03.2015  |  Case Study  |  0

Book Abacus ( is a web service that provides book recommendations generated using human-interests gathered from the Linked Open Data (LOD) cloud.  Azhar (Az) Jassal's case study, Book Abacus, Book Recommendations Using Hypertable and the Linked Open Data Cloud, illustrates how Hypertable enables Book Abacus to mine the LOD cloud and other Web sources to provide book recommendations based on news articles, DBpedia and existing book topics, pricing and availability --  updated every half hour.  The service uses Hypertable on the backend to store and analyze RDF triples, leveraging secondary indexes to allow data to be queried using orthogonal properties. The developers of Book Abacus found that Hypertable secondary indexes provide "a clean native implementation that can be used out-of-the-box."  They also found that while HBase has "numerous implementations" each has "limitations and drawbacks."   The service also exploits Hypertable's atomic counters to maintain incoming and outgoing link counts, which feed its relevance algorithm.  To learn more about Book Abacus and how it utilizes Hypertable, go to Book Abacus, Book Recommendations Using Hypertable and the Linked Open Data Cloud.

Posted By:  Rebecca Ritter


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New Cluster Administration Tool - ht_cluster

12.01.2014  |  Usability  |  0

As of the release we’ve introduced a new cluster administration tool called ht_cluster.  The tool provides a simple way to perform common administrative tasks such as starting and stopping Hypertable and upgrading to a new version.  This tool replaces Capistrano, which was the recommended cluster administration tool that served us well for many years.  ht_cluster is based on the same role and task concepts as Capistrano, where roles are named sets of hosts (e.g. master, slave) and tasks are shell scripts associated with roles that run in parallel on all hosts in the associated roles.  While conceptually very similar, ht_cluster improves upon Capistrano in a number of ways, most notably usability.  The following list describes the ways in which ht_cluster improves upon Capistrano.

  • No Dependencies – No dependency on Ruby or any Ruby gems.  All of the dependencies are included in the Hypertable package, so ht_cluster works “right out of the box”.
  • Single Language – The cluster configuration file is written entirely in Bash, whereas with Capistrano the language is a mixture of Ruby and Bash, making it difficult to mentally jump back-and-forth between languages.
  • Maximum Performance – ht_cluster is implemented with libssh 0.6.3 and connection establishment and command execution happens asynchronously and in parallel, which provides for maximum parallelism and performance.
  • Host Specification Pattern – Hosts can be described using a concise and flexible host specification pattern.  Several hundred hosts can be specified with a pattern such as test[000-299].  Hostnames can also be subtracted from a pattern which allows dead hosts to be easily removed from the configuration, for example:  test[000-299] - test137.  Capistrano, on the other...

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New and Improved Secondary Indexes

07.10.2014  |  New Feature  |  0

As part of our ongoing effort to make Hypertable useful for a wide range of applications, we've greatly improved our support for secondary indexing.  These improvements, introduced in the release, enable much more powerful queries that access rows by means other than the primary key.  As part of this effort, we've changed the query language to allow for more expressive queries and have brought it more in-line with SQL.

Like the original implementation, thew new secondary indexes are fully consistent and massively scalable.  They can be used to index not only column values, but also column qualifiers.  Secondary indexes can be defined in the CREATE TABLE statement with the INDEX and QUALIFIER INDEX clauses, for example:

CREATE TABLE customers (

name, INDEX name, tag, QUALIFIER INDEX tag, info, INDEX info, QUALIFIER INDEX info );

The ALTER TABLE command has been enhanced to allow for creating and dropping indexes of preexisting tables.  For example:


To populate indexes added with ALTER TABLE or to convert indexes created with older versions of Hypertable into the new format, the indexes need to be rebuilt.  This can be accomplished with the new REBUILD INDICES command.  For example:


The examples which follow in this post assume that the following table has been created and populated with products.tsv.

CREATE TABLE products ( title, section, info, category, INDEX section, INDEX info, QUALIFIER INDEX info, QUALIFIER INDEX category );

A set of scripts and data files for running all of the examples in this post can be found in the archive secondary-indexes.tgz.

Queries against the value index

One important difference between secondary index queries...

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Testing of Hypertable RangeServer Failover

03.04.2013  |  Testing  |  0

As we mentioned in our previous post announcing the newly arrived RangeServer failover feature, robustness and application transparency were #1 priorities.  To achieve these objectives, we placed enormous emphasis on testing.  While this testing effort was painstaking and led to a very long development cycle, it has paid enormous dividends in quality and robustness.  The following table lists the regression tests that were added to Hypertable to guarantee correctness and ensure that the expected behavior holds true for future releases.

# Test Description 1 RangeServer-failover-basic-1  Start Hypertable with two RangeServers (rs1,rs2) and then 1) Load table with data, 2) Kill rs1 and wait for recovery to complete, 3) Stop Hypertable and then restart with just rs2. Dump keys after each step and verify that the table contains the exact set of keys that were loaded. Verify that no ranges are assigned to rs1. 2 RangeServer-failover-basic-2  Start Hypertable with three RangeServers (rs1,rs2,rs3) and then 1) Load table with data, 2) Kill rs1 and wait for recovery to complete, 3) Stop Hypertable and then restart with just rs2 and rs3. Dump keys after each of these three steps and verify that the table contains the exact set of keys that were loaded. 3 RangeServer-failover-basic-3  Start Hypertable with five RangeServers (rs1,rs2,rs3,rs4,rs5) and then 1) Load table with data, 2) Kill rs1 and rs2 and wait for recovery to complete for both servers, 3) Stop Hypertable and then restart with just rs3, rs4, and rs5. Dump keys after each of the three steps and verify that the table contains the exact set of keys that were loaded. 4 RangeServer-failover-basic-4  Start Hypertable with two RangeServers (rs1,rs2) and then load table with data. Kill rs1 and wait for recovery to...

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Hypertable has Reached a Major Milestone!

02.14.2013  |  RangeServer Failover  |  2

With the release of Hypertable version comes support for automatic RangeServer failover.  Hypertable will now detect when a RangeServer has failed, logically remove it from the system, and automatically re-assign the ranges that it was managing to other RangeServers.  This represents a major milestone for Hypertable and alows for very large scale deployments.  We have been activly working on this feature, full-time, for 1 1/2 years.  To give you an idea of the magnitude of the change, here are the commit statistics:

  • 441 changed files
  • 17,522 line additions
  • 6,384 line deletions

The reason that this feature has been a long time in the making is because we placed a very high standard of quality for this feature so that under no circumstance, a RangeServer failure would lead to consistency problems or data loss.  We're confident that we've achieved 100% correctness under every conceivable circumstance.  The two primary goals for the feature, robustness and applicaiton transparancy, are described below.


We designed the RangeServer failover feature to be extremely robust.  RangeServers can fail in any state (mid-split, transferring, etc.) and will be recovered properly.  The system can also withstand the loss of any RangeServer, even the ones holding the ROOT or other METADATA ranges.  To achieve this level of robustness, we added 63 regression tests that verify the correct handling of RangeServer failures in every conceivable failure scenario.  We will follow up later with a blog post describing these tests.

Application Transparency

Another important aspect of our RangeServer failover implementation is application transparency.  Aside from a transient delay in database access, RangeServer failures are...

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Roadmap to Hypertable 1.0

07.23.2012  |  Release Status  |  11

With the release of Hypertable version I thought I would take some time to describe where we are in terms of the Hypertable 1.0 release and what work is remaining.  We had intended to make the next Hypertable release our beta release.  However, it’s been four months since the release of and since the beta release is not quite ready to go, we decided to do one last alpha release and call it  In this release we’ve put in a considerable effort to fix a number of stability issues that have affected prior releases. Stability Improvements for HDFS deployments

The biggest source of instability for Hypertable deployments running on top of HDFS has do with the unclean shutdown of either the Master or RangeServer.   Upon restart after this situation has ocurred, the RangeServer (or Master) can fail to come up with an error message similar to the following in its log file:

1342810317 ERROR Hypertable.RangeServer : verify_backup (/root/src/hypertable/src/cc/Hypertable/Lib/ MetaLog file '/hypertable/servers/rs12/log/rsml/0' has length 0 < backup file '/opt/hypertable/ /run/log_backup/rsml/rs12/0' length 11376

This problem was due to a misunderstanding on our part of the HDFS API semantics.  Whenever the Master or RangeServer writes data to any of its log files, it makes a call to FSDataOutputStream.sync() to ensure that the data makes it in to the filesystem and is persistent.  However, after making this call, a call to the FileStatus.getLen() does not return the correct value.  FileStatus.getLen() only returns the correct file length if the file was properly closed.  HDFS provides an alternate API, DFSClient.DFSDataInputStream.getVisibleLength(), that returns the actual length of the file regardless...

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Secondary Indices Have Arrived!

03.22.2012  |  New Feature  |  17

Until now, SELECT queries in Hypertable had to include a row key, row prefix or row interval specification in order to be fast. Searching for rows by specifying a cell value or a column qualifier involved a full table scan which resulted in poor performance and scaled badly because queries took longer as the dataset grew. With, we’ve implemented secondary indices that will make such SELECT queries lightning fast!

Hypertable supports two kinds of indices: a cell value index and a column qualifier index. This blog post explains what they are, how they work and how to use them.

The cell value index

Let’s look at an example of how to create those two indices.  A big telco asks us to design a table for its customer data.  Every user profile has a customer ID as the row key. But our system also wants to provide fast queries by phone number, since customers can dial in and our automated answering system can then immediately figure out who’s calling by checking the caller ID.  We therefore decide to create a secondary index on the phone number.  The following statement might be used to create this table and along with a phone number index:

CREATE TABLE customers ( name, address, phone_no, INDEX phone_no );

Internally, Hypertable will now create a table customers and an index table ^customers. Every cell that is now inserted into the phone_no column family will be transformed and inserted into the index table as well. If you’re curious, you can insert some phone numbers and run, SELECT * FROM “^customers”; to see how the index was updated.

Not every query makes use of the...

read more A Structured Search Engine Powered By Hypertable

03.15.2012  |  Hypertable Case Study  |  10 is a structured search engine.  It provides powerful querying capabilities that enable users to quickly complete complex information retrieval tasks.  It gathers conceptual awareness from the Linked Open Data cloud, and can be used as (1) a regular search engine or (2) as a structured search engine.  In both cases conceptual awareness is used to build entity centric result sets.  Try this simple query: Pop singers less than 20 years old. gathers data from the Semantic Web in the form of RDF, crawling the Linked Open Data cloud and making requests with headers accepting RDF NTriples.  Data dumps are also obtained from various sources.  In order to store this data, we required a data store capable of storing tens of billions of triples using the least hardware while still delivering high performance.  So we conducted our own study to find the most appropriate store for this type and quantity of data.

As Semantic Web people, our initial choice would have been to use native RDF data stores, better known as triplestores.  But from our initial usage we quickly concluded that SPARQL compliant triplestores and large quantities of data do not mix well.  As a challenge, we attempted to load 1.3 billion triples (the entire DBpedia and Freebase datasets) into a dual core machine with only 3GB memory.  The furthest any of the open source triplestores (4store, TDB, Virtuoso) progressed to load the datasets upon the given hardware was around 80 million triples.  We were told that the only solution was more hardware.  We weren't the only ones facing significant hardware requirements when attempting to the load this volume of data.  For example, in the following post a machine with 8 cores and 32GB...

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02.07.2012  |  Hypertable Unveils New Website  |  5

Welcome to the new Hypertable website.  This new website is easy to navigate and has all of the tools you'll need to learn about Hypertable and easily deploy it for your big data aplications.

We have put a tremendous amount of effort into the Documentation section of the website.  There you'll find an Architectural Overview, Installation Instructions, Administrator Guides, Reference Guides and much more.  Be sure check out the Code Examples section for working code examples written Java, C++, PHP, Python, Perl and Ruby.

We're also very excited to announce new products and services available today:

  • UpTime Support Subscription – for round-the-clock, 7 days a week, 365 days a year "uptime" assurance for your Hypertable deployments -- with support stafflocated in the United States and Europe
  • Training and Certification –  taught by big data experts, Hypertable Training and Certification classes are held in Silicon Valley, USA and Munich, Germany
  • Commercial License – for organizations such as OEMs, ISVs, and VARs who distribute Hypertable with their closed source products, Hypertable Inc. offers the software under a flexible OEM commercial license

Also, please check out the Hypertable vs. HBase Performance Evaluation II.  In this in-house performance test, Hypertable demonstrates its power by easily loading 167 billion records into a 16-node test cluster, a test in which HBase failed, struggling with memory management.

If you're looking to take commercial advantage of the power of big data, then the Hypertable database platform is the right choice for you.  Our new product and service offerings will ensure that you get the most out of your Hypertable deployment, allowing you to take full advantage of Hypertable's unprecedented performance and cost-efficiency...

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